The human immune system is designed to fight foreign agents or antigens that try to invade it. Sometimes this system does not have the ability to discriminate whether certain agents are good or bad, attacking what does not represent any harm to the body.
Sometimes these wrong answers often have serious consequences and can even lead to death.
Any reaction or clinical manifestation after the ingestion of any food, are considered as adverse reactions or unfavorable reactions. There are two types, allergy or intolerance and you have to be very clear about the difference between the two terms since they are very common when we talk about milk.
What is milk intolerance
Milk intolerance is that unfavorable response of the body to the consumption of this substance, where the symptoms or clinical manifestations are of non-immunological origin, this is due to the fact that milk contains lactose
This compound is a type of sugar found in dairy products, and to synthesize it, the body needs an enzyme called lactase, which is produced by the small intestine.
In some individuals, the production of this enzyme does not occur adequately and the amount of lactose ingested with milk cannot be metabolized, causing symptoms of intolerance, which are generally colic or abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, belching and flatulence.
What is a milk allergy
Now, milk allergy is the hypersensitivity reaction with an immune response mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE), which is an antibody that acts against antigens or substances that the body classifies as harmful, when in reality it is not. They are. In this case, the antigens or foreign substances that enter the body and that produce the exaggerated reactions of these antibodies, are the proteins present in cow's milk.
A person can develop a milk allergy even before they are born in their mother's womb. Allergy is usually less common than intolerance and represents only 15% of the adverse reactions that someone could present when ingesting milk. It ranks third among allergy-producing foods, after peanuts and eggs, which top the list.
Cause of allergy to milk
There are two proteins in cow's milk that can be the cause of most allergies of this type, Casein, which is found in the solid part and Serum, which is the liquid part of milk.
The main cause, is the administration of cow's milk at an early age, it can also occur in children who have been fed by exclusive breastfeeding, because the proteins present in cow's milk or in other types of dairy such as cheese and the yogurt that the mother consumes, pass to the baby through breast milk and in children who are fed with formula milk.
There are also risk factors that could increase the chances of developing a milk allergy, such as the previous existence of other types of allergies, atopic dermatitis or the appearance of frequent inflammatory lesions on the skin, family history, that is, one or both parents have an allergy to milk or any other antigen and the age of the patient as previously described.
How to recognize your symptoms
Usually the clinical manifestations of allergies produced by milk proteins are evident at the level of the digestive, respiratory or skin system and the intensity of appearance of these symptoms varies depending on the person and usually manifest after the consumption of milk or Their derivatives.
· Digestive symptoms: nausea, vomiting and diarrhea .
· Respiratory: runny nose, cough, shortness of breath, wheezing (sound that resembles a hiss, product of the passage of air through the airways with a decreased diameter).
· Dermatological symptoms: itching or itching, bulking or swelling, atopic dermatitis and other skin eruptions.
The anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock is the most important and dangerous allergy to milk complication. It is a very serious allergic reaction, considered a medical emergency that can manifest itself in a very short time (minutes or seconds) after exposure to an allergen, it is described in milk allergy.
The patient will begin to experience itching or hives, redness, generalized increase in volume, decrease in blood pressure with accelerated heart rate, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of consciousness and finally the most important clinical manifestation, responsible for the death of the patients. patients who are not treated on time, the increase in the volume of the tongue and the glottis that causes the closure of the upper respiratory tract, thus avoiding the passage of air and as a result suffocation.
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